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The 13th World Conference on Tobacco OR Health
Building capacity for a tobacco-free world
July 12-15, 2006, Washington, DC, USA
Objective: To assess prevalence, potential risk factors including tobacco smoking and population attributable risk percentage (PAR%) for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh.
Methods: A population-based study, using a stratified, random, cluster, systematic sampling strategy, was conducted in the state of Andhra Pradesh (AP) in India during 1996 and 2000. Participants from 94 clusters in one urban and three rural areas representative of the population of AP, underwent a detailed interview and a detailed dilated ocular evaluation by trained professionals. AMD was defined according to the international classification and grading system. Population attributable risk percent for smoking and for other factors was calculated using Levin's formula.
Results: Multivariate analysis showed that, the adjusted prevalence of AMD was significantly higher in those 60 years of age or older (odds ratio [OR], 3.55; 95% CI, 1.61-7.82) and history of prior cigar smoking OR, 3.29 (95%CI: 1.42 – 7.57). The prevalence of AMD was also significantly higher in cigar smokers who smoked heavily (adjusted OR = 2.36; 95% CI: 1.17 – 4.71). Presence of cortical cataract and prior cataract surgery were significantly associated with increased prevalence of AMD (adjusted OR, 2.87; 95% CI: 1.57 - 5.26 and 3.79; 95% CI: 2.12 - 6.78) respectively. The prevalence of AMD was significantly lower in light alcohol drinkers adjusted OR, 0.38; (95% CI, 0.19 – 0.76) compared with nondrinkers. The population attributable risk percent for hypertension and heavy cigar smoking was 10% and 14% respectively in this population.