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The 13th World Conference on Tobacco OR Health
Building capacity for a tobacco-free world
July 12-15, 2006, Washington, DC, USA
Objective: To pilot test the effects of a cognitive-behavioral group and telephone intervention during pregnancy and the postpartum period on women's smoking and abstinence rates, secondhand smoke exposure, and mental health.
Methods: A quasi-experimental two-group design with repeated measures was used. Sixteen current or former pregnant smokers were recruited from WIC offices in Lexington, Kentucky.The treatment group received four 90-minute cognitive-behavioral group sessions focused on changing patterns of negative thinking including thought stopping and affirmation strategies. Intervention participants also received six postpartum 10-minute phone sessions designed to reinforce group sessions and prevent relapse. In-home interviews were conducted at baseline and 1-month post-group intervention (prenatal) and at 2-and 4-months postpartum. Data were collected on smoking and quit history, readiness for change, urine cotinine, secondhand smoke exposure, in-home air quality, nicotine dependence, negative thoughts, self-esteem, chronic stressors, and depressive symptoms.
Results: At the 1-month prenatal follow-up, 28% of the intervention group and 1% of the control group reported smoking abstinence; 37% of the intervention group and 0% of the controls reported abstaining post-natally. At 4 months postpartum, 20% of the intervention group and 1% of the controls remained abstinent. Both negative thinking and chronic stressors decreased for the treatment group; controls reported increases in negative thinking and chronic stressors over time. Readiness to quit smoking increased for the treatment group over the course of the study; controls reported decreasing readiness to quit over time. This innovative mental health intervention shows promise in boosting confidence in ability to quit smoking during the childbearing years.