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The 13th World Conference on Tobacco OR Health
Building capacity for a tobacco-free world
July 12-15, 2006, Washington, DC, USA
Objective: To determine the prevalence of and characteristics of smokers who experience smoking-induced deprivation (SID), and to examine its effect on quit attempts, relapse and cessation.
Methods: We employed Waves 2 and 3 (2003-2005) of the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Survey, which is a prospective study of a cohort of smokers in the USA, Canada, UK and Australia. Smoking-induced deprivation was measured with the question “… have you spent money on cigarettes that you knew would be better spent on household essentials like food?” A total of 7,802 smokers participate in the survey in Wave 2, 5,408 of whom were also interviewed in Wave 3.
Results: The proportion of smokers who reported SID was the highest in Australia (33%) and the lowest in the UK (20%). Younger age, minority status and low income were associated with a higher probability of SID. Other factors which were related to a higher probability of SID were: higher level of nicotine dependence, having an intention to quit, smoking to help one socialize or control weight, thinking often about the harms or dangers of smoking, thinking a lot about the future, experiencing a higher level of stress and having many friends who smoke. SID was associated with making a quit attempt. This relationship was mediated by having an intention to quit and worrying that smoking would damage health and lower quality of life. SID was also associated with relapse. This relationship was mediated by perceived stress. SID was not associated with successful cessation.